A far cry from today’s commercial and even craft beer brewing, traditional home brewing was unpaid, as with much of what is designated women’s work.Township dwellers congregate at shebeens to take time out listening to music, dancing and enjoying a drink. (Image: Chris Smith, Flickr)Aneshree NaidooWhen Miriam Makeba debuted in the musical King Kong, she immortalised the shebeen queen: these were the tough-talking, no-nonsense women of the townships who put their traditional brewing skills to use to keep their families from dire poverty during the oppressive apartheid years.In South Africa, as across the world, brewing was historically women’s work, falling under the ambit of household or ceremonial duties. A far cry from today’s commercial and even craft beer brewing, traditional home brewing was unpaid, as with much of what is designated women’s work. But as apartheid legislation eroded the quality of life of black South Africans, women used their traditional skills to keep liquor flowing, defying the prohibition on black South Africans drinking and brewing alcohol. Their illegal – and hence dangerous – activities provided a regular source of income for their fragmented families.Shebeen queens were shrewd businesswomen. Realising that police would confiscate their slow brews when they raided, they developed shorter brewing times, adapting traditional methods to create stronger, quicker brews to serve to patrons after work on Fridays. Sometimes, to give the brews more of a kick, they shored up the liquor with dangerous additives such as methylated spirits, a denatured alcohol.Shebeen cultureDespite the dangers, shebeens became central to cultural life for black South Africans. They were communal talking, laughing, drinking spaces where ideas as heady as the liquor flowed. Activists gathered to debate heatedly, while lovers and friends chatted; and the music played on. The now unmistakeable rhythms of township life – phatha patha, kwaito, kwela and township jazz, the love children of South African marabi beats and American soulful blues – spilled out of the shebeens, lifting hearts and growing the passion for freedom. The music itself was a defiant middle finger to the apartheid authorities, creating stars like Makeba, Hugh Masakela and so many other artists. It crossed international borders and spread the message that black South Africans were human, living, loving and creating, and, under apartheid, dying.Shebeens thrived after the 1927 Liquor Act, which among other restrictions “prohibited Africans and Indians from selling alcohol or entering licensed premises”. While African women were uniquely suited to brewing beer given their traditional skills, their growing role as shebeen queens was also dictated by legislation. As they did not have to carry passes until the 1950s, they were undesirable employees, their movements uncontrollable. They were economic wild cards, often single women making a living in a male-dominated society. And as shebeens became more popular, their risky livelihoods were threatened. Along with evading arrest and having their products confiscated, they eventually faced stiff competition.Shebeens are more than drinking establishments, they are central to the cultural life of black South Africans. (Image: Stanley Sagov)Apartheid profits from beer salesThe 1927 Liquor Act may have spurred the growth of shebeens, but from 1937, municipal drinking halls encroached on the women’s businesses. The profits from the halls benefitted the municipalities, but unlike the shebeen queens’ incomes, never trickled through to the families supported by the businesses. By the 1960s, despite protests, more than 60 municipalities operated legal beer halls; black African women controlled the illegal business. There were more than 10 000 shebeens in Soweto alone, and some 30 000 illegal brewers had set up shop in the Western Cape. The women were powerful, walking tall in their independence, and often berated the men who drank at the beer halls for not supporting their community-centred businesses.Their reign was soon to end though. The Act had restricted profits for commercial brewers, and in 1962 the apartheid government caved under pressure from the industry and opened up sales to black South Africans. They could not drink in town – white areas – but they could now buy commercial beer at off-sales. South African Breweries and the apartheid state saw their profits grow.Despite their waning stars, the shebeen queens have become a celebrated archetype in South African art, film and literature. Fred Khumalo’s protagonist, Lettie, in Bitches’ Brew, chooses the life when her teen lover turns out to be unworthy; in Down Second Avenue, Es’kia Mphahlele describes the economic independence being a shebeen queen offered: “The same old cycle. Leave school, my daughter, and work, you cannot sit at home and have other people work for you; stand up and do the white man’s washing and sell beer. That’s right – that is how a woman does it; look at us, we do not sit and look up to our husbands or fathers to work alone; we have sent our children to school with money from beer selling…”In Mine Boy, Peter Abrahams describes the dangers the women faced, as well as their solidarity in adversity: “They are all women who sell beer. And if one is arrested they all come together and collect money among themselves and bail out the arrested one. They are here to collect money for those who were arrested yesterday.”Bloke Modisane, in his autobiography, Blame Me on History, tells of how having a shebeen queen mother changed his life: “My mother wanted a better life for her children, a kind of insurance against poverty by trying to give me a prestige profession, and if necessary would go to jail whilst doing it.”Popular soapie Generations has its own shebeen queen. Mam’ Ruby has viewers buzzing with her antics, while Isidingo has introduced a shebeen king, the charismatic Georgie Zamdela.Legal shebeens keep communities afloatToday, shebeens are legal and serve mostly commercial beers and other alcoholic drinks, along with some traditional beers, or umqombothi, made from maize or sorghum. They are still cultural centres, but the shebeens’ defiant character has been replaced with a more laid-back vibe. They are now also subject to the same taxes and legislation as all legal liquor-serving establishments. This places an enormous financial burden on owners, most of whom are still female, while smaller businesses further away from wealthier urban centres face the threat of closure.In 2012, the Foundation for Sustainable Livelihoods counted some 25 000 informal alcohol outlets in the Western Cape. Each establishment employed on average three to four people. In total, some 210 000 people would have lost their jobs had the shebeens closed down. The economic benefits shebeens had, and still have, cannot be discounted, even as it is acknowledged that they take a heavy social toll, and can often be public nuisances.Since 1994, there have been moves to restrict 24-hour trading to reduce noise; serving alcohol to intoxicated people; and serving alcohol to underage people. KwaZulu-Natal has gone a step further, and requires the owners of liquor outlet to give back to the communities in which they operate by participating in community development initiatives.The new face of South African brewingCraft brewing has become immensely popular of late, with the trendy hip crowd seeking rare brews at high prices. The fashion has also, in the mainstream consciousness, overshadowed traditional South African brewing, opting to focus on hops and wheat-based brews rather than traditional African ingredients. The industry, as with major commercial brewing, is also male-dominated.Apiwe Nxusani, the brewmaster at microbrewery Brewhogs in Gauteng, is one of a handful of black female brewers in the country. She says her industry is slowly starting to change, even as traditional African brewing is still seen as a “woman’s job”. She says the perception that commercial and craft beer brewing and drinking is for men needs to be challenged, to attract more women to the industry. “I think the big boys should lead the pack and start advertising and marketing beer as also a woman’s drink of choice – make it cool for a woman to be seen enjoying a cold beer.”While commercial brews dominate the market, and craft beers are making inroads, traditional brewing has not completely fallen away. Legacy brands such as iJuba, Chibuku, and Joburg Beer, produced by United National Breweries, are easily available, and are still brewed using traditional principles and traditional ingredients.The art of brewing, and the role of women in it, is a story as old as modern humanity. And as the industry grows, refines it methods and produces more inventive products, South Africa will remember the women – the shebeen queens – who faced down an oppressive government, beer in hand.As Shakespeare said: “She brews good ale, and thereof comes the proverb, ‘Blessing of your heart, you brew good ale.’”Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.
Essential Reading! Get my first book: The Only Sale Guide You’ll Ever Need “The USA Today bestseller by the star sales speaker and author of The Sales Blog that reveals how all salespeople can attain huge sales success through strategies backed by extensive research and experience.” Buy Now It’s very difficult to sell without a compelling value proposition.Today I received a second call from a “radio station” that broadcasts live shows to 150 or more countries over the Internet. The salesperson said that they had researched me and determined that I would be a good fit for their platform.Politely, I suggested again that I wasn’t a good fit for their platform, and the salesperson wanted to know why. I explained that they don’t pay the “hosts” or “broadcasters” or whatever on their platform, and therefore, no value. I ruffled her feathers enough it came through in her voice when she suggested that I would have to pay them to to be on their network.I told her that I can already do what they do with a podcast, and I can be found on iTunes and Stitcher and Blubrry and my own site. She asked if I could be found in a 150 countries. I told her that thanks to the Internet, I imagine anyone who wanted to could find me from whatever country they happened to live in, but I wasn’t sure about North Korea.The salesperson was angry that I pushed back on her value proposition (or lack thereof) and told me that I wasn’t a good fit. I agreed. In fact, that was why I was trying to disqualify myself again.Some LessonsIt isn’t this salesperson’s fault she has a poor value proposition. Her company’s business model is broken. They are kind of a vanity press for people trying to build a brand, and when the tools and platforms didn’t exist to the level they do today, they may have been useful. She isn’t responsible for her company failing to change.The business model is to sell me the package and then require me to sell advertisers to make money. This model looks a lot like the publishing industry. Book publishers are interested in publishing books from people who are going to sell a lot of books. But if you already have an audience (and no publisher would want you if you didn’t), then you don’t need a publisher. You also don’t need to pay for a platform to broadcast.When what your client needs changes, your value proposition needs to change. Ask yourself this question, “What value can we deliver that would make us worth paying for?” (If you want to be great, ask “What value we can deliver that would make us worth paying MORE for?”If what you sell depends on your clients selling something, your value proposition is likely going to depend on how you help your client sell.
Each pay-per-view sale means more money in the wallets of both fighters. Though estimates vary widely, Mayweather is expected to make some $200 million, while McGregor will likely pocket at least $100 million.Though ticket sales have been slow in Las Vegas — largely because of astronomical prices — the fight is shaping up as must-see TV at a price of $99.95. People are expected to buy the fight in record numbers, with many sharing the cost of the telecast with friends and family they invite over.Taffet said people will treat it much like a Super Bowl by getting together in larger numbers than usual.“I think this is first and foremost a television event,” said Taffet, who oversaw 190 pay-per-views in his career at HBO. “The success of this fight in the financial record books of history will be made on pay-per-view. And I believe it’s going to deliver.”Industry observers say it’s hard to judge how many homes will buy a pay-per-view until the day of the fight many times, as people often buy late. But the anecdotal evidence — primarily the chatter on social media — indicates a good likelihood of it smashing the 4.6 million record of pay-per-view sales set by the Mayweather-Pacquiao fight.ADVERTISEMENT That’s largely because the matchup will likely cross over from being just a sporting event to a party night.“We have definitely seen massive general market interest in addition to the sports fan,” said Stephen Espinoza, who heads sports for Showtime, which will televise the fight. “These general market viewers are often not part of the audience for even the biggest combat sports event. So the ceiling is pretty high.”Espinoza said the very nature of the fight — a matchup between a UFC star who has never boxed as a pro against one of the greatest fighters of his time — will drive the pay-per-view sales.“We believe this is an unprecedented event, quite frankly no one knows what to expect,” he said. “The element of these two outspoken personalities in one unprecedented event is compelling.”An early indication of interest in the fight is the massive betting both in Nevada and in other places where it is legal. Bookmakers say it will be the biggest bet fight ever, with an overwhelming number of the early tickets on McGregor to pull an upset.Still, there are plenty of tickets left in the arena itself, where prices originally ranged from $2,500 in the upper sections to $10,000 at ringside. Ticket prices have been dropping in the resale market — with some available for less than $1,300 on Tuesday — and are expected to decline more in the days before the fight.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Trump signs bills in support of Hong Kong protesters Celebrity chef Gary Rhodes dies at 59 with wife by his side NATO’s aging eye in the sky to get a last overhaul UFC champ Jon Jones flagged for another failed doping test Hotel says PH coach apologized for ‘kikiam for breakfast’ claim Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Robredo should’ve resigned as drug czar after lack of trust issue – Panelo Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss PLAY LIST 02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games Ethel Booba on hotel’s clarification that ‘kikiam’ is ‘chicken sausage’: ‘Kung di pa pansinin, baka isipin nila ok lang’ Pagasa: Storm intensifies as it nears PAR “It’s a cultural event that crosses all demographics and all social and economic factors,” said Mark Taffet, who formerly ran pay-per-view for HBO. “People are getting together to have a great time and we surely need an excuse to have a great time.”Taffet said that while an average of 5-6 people normally watches a pay-per-view, he wouldn’t be surprised if the fight averages 10 people a household. If it sells 5 million pay-per-views as widely anticipated, the fight could be watched by nearly one in six Americans.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSBoxers Pacquiao, Petecio torchbearers for SEA Games openingThe fight will also be seen by millions more worldwide, with promoters claiming it will be available either online or on a TV screen to more than 1 billion homes in 200 different countries.“If you are in Manhattan or you are on a desert island somewhere, if you have Wi-Fi, you can buy this fight,” promoter Dana White said. LATEST STORIES MOST READ This July 13, 2017 photo shows Floyd Mayweather Jr., left, and Conor McGregor, of Ireland, facing each other for photos during a news conference at Barclays Center in New York. So far fans aren’t exactly storming the box office to buy tickets for Mayweather Jr.’s fight next month with McGregor. A check online Saturday, July 29, 2017 revealed hundreds _ even thousands _ of seats still available from Ticketmaster at the T-Mobile arena for the Aug. 26 fight. There are so many open seats that fans with enough room left on their credit cards can buy six tickets together in 162 different spots throughout the arena. (AP Photo/Frank Franklin II)LAS VEGAS — Conor McGregor’s improbable challenge of Floyd Mayweather Jr. could be seen by a staggering 50 million people in the United States as fans and the curious gather in small and large parties.The fight Saturday night threatens the pay-per-view revenue record set by Mayweather and Manny Pacquiao two years ago and could dwarf it in viewership as people use the event as a reason to have friends and family over for a little escapism and controlled violence.ADVERTISEMENT Lacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’ View comments
WHO: Marketa Vondrousova, 19, Czech RepublicBEST MAJOR: Fourth round, 2018 U.S. OpenFRENCH OPEN RECORD: 1-2WHY SHE MATTERS: Lefty with mature game full of variety is 21-5 since the Australian Open, including two victories over 2018 French Open champion Simona Halep.WHAT COULD HOLD HER BACK: Like some others on this list, unaccustomed to the rarefied air of the latter rounds at a Grand Slam tournament.POSSIBLE OPPONENT: 3-time major champion Angelique Kerber in the second round.WORDS: “If not this year, keep an eye on her. She is going to be good, for sure.” — 18-time major champion Chris Evert.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next That doesn’t mean, of course, that all have a shot at a title, even if defending champion Simona Halep figures about 10 women do.No one truly believes that many men are viable contenders to end up with the trophy. The list pretty much begins and ends with 11-time champ Rafael Nadal and Novak Djokovic, who has won the past three majors.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSPalace wants Cayetano’s PHISGOC Foundation probed over corruption chargesSPORTSSingapore latest to raise issue on SEA Games food, logisticsAs 14th-seeded Gael Monfils put it: “If I were to ask you who the favorites are for Roland Garros, you would give me two names and it’s always the same. No one is going to give me another name. … Who are the two main favorites? They are Rafa and Novak. And that is not going to change right away.”There are 128 entrants in each draw, and while 127 will lose, there are men and women who have yet to win a Grand Slam title — maybe not even come that close yet — who might make some noise at the 2019 French Open. DA eyes importing ‘galunggong’ anew WORDS: “I am playing my best tennis right now.” — Garin.___WHO: Stefanos Tsitsipas, 20, GreeceBEST MAJOR: Semifinals, 2019 Australian OpenFRENCH OPEN RECORD: 1-2WHY HE MATTERS: Announced his presence by upsetting 20-time major champ Roger Federer in the fourth round in Australia; tied for the tour lead with two titles in 2019. Has a rare combination of strength at the baseline and touch at the net.WHAT COULD HOLD HIM BACK: No real reason he shouldn’t be a factor deep into the tournament.POSSIBLE OPPONENT: Federer in the quarterfinals.WORDS: “It’s good to come into a Grand Slam knowing what you’ve done well, what you’ve done wrong, trying to concentrate on those things in order to avoid the same mistakes in the big events.” — Tsitsipas.___ Two-day strike in Bicol fails to cripple transport WHAT COULD HOLD HER BACK: In a word: inexperience. Has played only six Grand Slam matches in what shapes up as a promising career.POSSIBLE OPPONENT: No. 11 seed Aryna Sabalenka in the second round.IN HER WORDS: “It’s been a really great year for me. Obviously I’m motivated to do even more.” — Anisimova.___WHO: Cristian Garin, 22, ChileBEST MAJOR: 0-3 in Grand Slam matchesFRENCH OPEN RECORD: DebutWHY HE MATTERS: One of only two men (Benoit Paire is the other) to have won more than one clay-court title this season.WHAT COULD HOLD HIM BACK: New to this stage. Never won a match at a major; never appeared in the main draw at Roland Garros.POSSIBLE OPPONENT: 3-time major champ Stan Wawrinka in the second round. View comments Ethel Booba twits Mocha over 2 toilets in one cubicle at SEA Games venue Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles00:36Manny Pacquiao part of 2019 SEA Games opening ceremony02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss LATEST STORIES FRENCH OPEN 2019: What to watch, from Osaka to Federer’s return Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting ‘Rebel attack’ no cause for concern-PNP, AFP FRENCH OPEN RECORD: DebutWHY SHE MATTERS: A fresh face on the scene. Big strokes and fearless attitude carried her to a hard-court title at Indian Wells as a wild-card entrant and a 31-4 record this season.WHAT COULD HOLD HER BACK: Has been dealing with an injured right shoulder that sidelined her since March.POSSIBLE OPPONENT: 23-time major champion Serena Williams in the third round.WORDS: “I have watched all these players play on TV so many times, so it’s surreal to be able to play against them.” — Andreescu.___WHO: Amanda Anisimova, 17, United States.BEST MAJOR: Fourth round, 2019 Australian OpenFRENCH OPEN RECORD: 0-1WHY SHE MATTERS: Showed with a second-week run in Australia in January and a clay-court title in Colombia in April that she can handle the setting and the surface. She’s the youngest American woman to win a title since Serena Williams was 17 at Indian Wells in 1999. Catholic schools seek legislated pay hike, too Cayetano: Senate, Drilon to be blamed for SEA Games mess MOST READ PDEA chief backs Robredo in revealing ‘discoveries’ on drug war Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. FILE – In this March 17, 2019, file photo, Bianca Andreescu, of Canada, kisses her trophy after defeating Angelique Kerber, of Germany, in the women’s final at the BNP Paribas Open tennis tournament in Indian Wells, Calif. Andreescu, 18, is seeded at a Grand Slam tournament for the first time at the 2019 French Open, where play begins Sunday. (AP Photo/Mark J. Terrill, File)PARIS — There’s been unprecedented tennis parity so far in 2019, including the clay-court circuit leading to the French Open: A total of 23 players split the 25 WTA and ATP titles on the slow, red surface.That means there are plenty of people who can succeed over the next two weeks at Roland Garros, where play begins Sunday.ADVERTISEMENT Even setting aside those without a major championship but other strong bona fides, along the lines of Dominic Thiem, Kiki Bertens or Karolina Pliskova, the brackets contain some younger competitors without previous success at Roland Garros who could draw attention.Here’s a look:___WHO: Bianca Andreescu, 18, CanadaBEST MAJOR: Second round, 2019 Australian OpenADVERTISEMENT