Crucial Geological Proxy May Be Misinterpreted

first_img(Visited 514 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 Many inferences about past climate and evolution depend on a measurement with dubious interpretations.Two scientists just published a bombshell paper in PNAS that could undermine many inferences about past climate and evolution. Geyman and Maloof title their paper, “A diurnal carbon engine explains 13C-enriched carbonates without increasing the global production of oxygen.” Specialists in paleogeochemistry and paleoclimate should pay attention. Evolutionists should worry.Since nobody can observe the past in a time machine, scientists use proxies to make inferences about past conditions. A proxy is a measurement that theoretically traces what happened in the unobservable past. Examples are tree rings, stalactites, and isotopic ratios in sediments and ice cores. One proxy is particularly important, because it is widely trusted in everything from evolutionary theory to climate history. Its scientific shorthand is δ13C (delta-carbon-13), a measure of isotopic carbon ratios as they change over time (the Greek letter delta is shorthand for “change” in scientific lingo). Carbon, which is element 12 in the periodic table with 6 protons and 6 neutrons, has two famous isotopes. Carbon-14, with two extra neutrons, is unstable and radioactive, and used for ‘radiocarbon’ dating. Carbon-13 has one extra neutron. It is a stable isotope, but much less abundant than carbon-12. Because of its slightly heavier atomic weight, some processes can increase its abundance relative to carbon-12 in certain conditions. This is called fractionation: carbon-13 exhibits a higher fraction of total carbon than normal. One of these processes is photosynthesis.Crucially ImportantWhen geologists or climatologists see an “excursion” in δ13C in the sediment record, they want to know how it got there. Theories rush into the vacuum of the unknown. The most popular theory is that photosynthetic organisms concentrate carbon-13, such that inorganic carbon will have less of it than organic carbon. Why is this important?The δ13C of shallow carbonates is a crucially important tool for global chemostratigraphic correlation, especially before the appearance of index animal fossils.Based on measurements of sediments taken now, scientists routinely envision the chemistry of the oceans 500 million Darwin years ago and older. For example, they believe that rising oxygen in the oceans (inferred from δ13C measurements) triggered the Cambrian explosion. The extra oxygen “permitted” complex life to evolve after billions of years of low-oxygen water held them back (so goes the just-so story). Climatologists, too, use carbon-13 ratios to infer past climate conditions, teaching the peasants about geologic eras when temperatures were hot or cold, and when animals survived droughts and ice ages. A lot of interpretive weight is put on those carbon-13 excursions!Geyman and Maloof have a simpler explanation. It involves days, not millions of years. They identified a “diurnal cycle” that can enrich or deplete carbon-13 in shallow water sediments – the very locations where geologists typically measure it, or infer that the rock strata were formed in such sediments. (Deep marine sediments cannot be used because of plate tectonics and subduction.)We present stable carbon isotope (δ13C) data from modern carbonate sediment that require a decoupling of the carbon cycles in the global ocean versus shallow carbonate shelves. This realization is important because, for the first 97% of Earth history, many inferences about global paleoclimate and seawater chemistry rely on interpretations of shallow carbonates. We use modern observations and a simple model to show how ordinary diurnal carbon cycling in shallow waters is sufficient to produce anomalously positive δ13C on shelves today, and in the geological record. Our results alleviate the need to interpret positive δ13C excursions in the geological record as global reorganizations of the carbon cycle and instead link δ13C to local and/or global paleoenvironmental and paleoecological controls.If Geyman and Maloof are right, a good deal of interpretation about past climate and evolution could be vulnerable to falling like a house of cards.Evaluating the significance of this paper is going to take deeper analysis than is possible here. We want to bring it to the attention of non-Darwinian geologists in order to stimulate discussion and raise questions. Here are some possible questions:What are the extremes of interpretation involved? (i.e., no significance vs highly significant).What affect could this have on dating the geologic column?How does the new theory affect interpretation and dating of ice cores?What does it do to the interpretation of early earth conditions before fossils?How does it affect the theory of evolution?Laymen need to be cautious not to run off announcing a ‘scientific revolution’ regarding the age of the earth, climate, or the fossil record. When investigating a proxy like this, there are all kinds of complicating factors: e.g., the effects of temperature on deposition, the abundance of photosynthetic life, variations in erosion, saturation changes of carbon in sea water, how that affects minerals, and much more.Creationists need to acknowledge that we weren’t there during the “early earth” (however old one believes it is), and so we have similar issues understanding what δ13C means. Knowledgeable geochemists should first study the paper and determine its potential significance. For now, the take-home message should be caution about proxy measurements and interpretations of the unobservable past. What scientists confidently assert about earth history may rely on a “broken reed of a staff which will pierce the hand of any man who leans on it” (II Kings 18:21).last_img read more

Adityanath to contest bypoll

first_imgUttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath will contest Assembly bypoll after the presidential elections in July, rather than opt for the somewhat safer route through the State’s Legislative Council that many of his predecessors have resorted to.Two former chief ministers — Mayawati (2007-2012) and Akhilesh Yadav (2012-2017) — chose to enter the U.P. Assembly via the Upper House that depends on indirect elections through an electoral college of MLAs and teacher constituencies, rather than direct election to the Lower House. “He (Yogi Adityanath) will be contesting elections to the Assembly. Some party MLA will have to vacate a seat for him to contest,” a senior BJP leader told The Hindu.As of now the most likely seat appears to be the Gorakhpur City Assembly seat, held by the Chief Minister’s close associate Radha Mohan Das Agarwal. BJP leaders, however, have not disclosed which seat Mr Adityanath would choose. . Mr Adityanath’s deputy, Keshav Prasad Maurya, too, will have to quit his Lok Sabha seat of Phulpur and contest polls, but he might be given the option of entering the Assembly via the Legislative Council. High-voltage campaign“Yogi Aditynathji’s election is unlikely to be low key, and the campaign will have a spin off in other States as a show piece,” said a senior leader. “The brownie points of a BJP Chief Minister not shying away from a bypoll in a State where previous chief ministers have done so is also important,” said the source. “All this, of course, will happen only after the Presidential polls scheduled for July. As per the electoral college, an MP’s votes have more weightage than an MLA’s although votes from U.P. Assembly have the highest value,” said the source. Thus the bypoll could well be held by September. Parrikar’s entryBypolls will also have to be held in Goa for Chief Minister Manohar Parrikar to be elected to the Assembly. As of now, Mr Parrikar is still a Rajya Sabha MP from U.P., a high value vote in the Presidential polls. The NDA is short of 18,000 votes in the total electoral college of 10,98,882 votes, with a halfway mark of 5,49,442 votes.last_img read more

Charge sheet filed against 11 persons in land fraud case in Jammu and Kashmir

first_imgThe Jammu and Kashmir State Vigilance Organisation (SVO) on Monday filed a charge sheet against 11 persons, including four former revenue officials of Kishtwar district, for preparing fraudulent mutation of State land documents, officials said.The charge sheet was filed in the court of special judge anti-corruption, Doda, against four retired revenue officials and seven persons to whom the land measuring over 7.5 acre was transferred on monetary consideration, a spokesman of the SVO said.He said a complaint was received in 2011 alleging that a large chunk of land in Pouchal area of Kishtwar, which was shown in revenue records in 1971 as government land and not inhabited by anyone, was fraudulently mutated by the revenue authorities.It was alleged that the said land was going to have the alignment of the Kishtwar-Chatroo-Sinthan Road and there would be huge compensation in the offing. The spokesman said the verification confirmed the allegations and revealed that the then revenue officials, including Tehsildar (now expired), Girdwar and two Patwaris (all retired) entered into a criminal conspiracy with seven residents. The spokesman said the officials made fraudulent entries in revenue records exclusively in favour of the seven.This was done by initially changing the status of the land in 2003 and subsequently attested mutations of the said land in favour of the beneficiaries in 2010 by showing their possession over the same since 1971.Dates discrepancyThe possession (land) of the two beneficiaries — Kuljeet Singh and Pardeep Singh — shows since 1971, whereas their dates of birth have been found as February 2, 1977, and April 5, 1964, respectively, the spokesman said.He said the verification also found that the land came under alignment of Kishtwar-Sinthan Road, and the revenue officials in connivance with beneficiaries intended to grab the compensation.Meanwhile, the spokesman said another charge sheet was filed in the same court against the then Kishtwar Tehsildar Irshad Ahmad Bhat, who was caught red-handed demanding and accepting bribe of ₹7,000.last_img read more

Sparks extend Aguilas, Younghusbands’ winless spell

first_imgLATEST STORIES Minniecon struck from close range in the 53rd minute, scoring from the edge of the area after skipping past a couple of challenges, before Morallo sealed the win with a firm header past Marko Trkulja six minutes from time.Kaya moved to within six points off the Sparks after a 4-0 spanking of Stallion Laguna at University of Makati Stadium.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutout Nonong Araneta re-elected as PFF president Fernando, Paz seize underbone, scooter top spots Counsels of 8 convicted coast guard personnel to appeal court decision PLAY LIST 02:30Counsels of 8 convicted coast guard personnel to appeal court decision00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles01:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games Fire hits houses in Mandaluyong City View comments BSP sees higher prices in November, but expects stronger peso, low rice costs to put up fight LOOK: Loisa Andalio, Ronnie Alonte unwind in Amanpulo for 3rd anniversary FC Meralco Manila gave Phil and James Younghusband a rude homecoming last Saturday at Rizal Memorial Coliseum, posting a 2-0 victory over the Davao Aguilas that extended the Sparks’ lead at the top of the Philippines Football League to six points.Goals from Tahj Minniecon and Jake Morallo lifted the Sparks to 44 points for the season, while leaving the Aguilas winless in 17 matches, despite a massive roster buildup during the transfer window that saw them acquire the Younghusband brothers, who faced their former team for the first time.ADVERTISEMENT Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa Frontrow holds fun run to raise funds for young cancer patients  E.T. returns to earth, reunites with grown-up Elliott in new ad  MOST READ Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Read Nextlast_img read more

Sharapova fights to first title since drugs ban

first_imgNCAA Season 93’s Best 7: Week 14 LOOK: Loisa Andalio, Ronnie Alonte unwind in Amanpulo for 3rd anniversary Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Fire hits houses in Mandaluyong City View comments Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC Sharapova clasped her hands to her chest in delight as she absorbed the feeling of winning her 36th tour title and first in more than two years since the 2015 Italian Open.Sharapova, 30, was contesting the seventh tournament of what has been an injury-plagued and controversial comeback since testing positive for the banned substance meldonium in early 2016.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutShe exchanged 11 breaks of serve with the Belarusian, who has yet to win a WTA trophy, before finally clinching it in the tie-breaker when the teenager put a forehand return long.In a tight final of high-decibel shrieking, Sabalenka was broken in the opening game but any expectations that she would roll over quickly dissolved when she won four games in a row to go 4-1 up. Nonong Araneta re-elected as PFF president Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa BSP sees higher prices in November, but expects stronger peso, low rice costs to put up fight Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles01:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games MOST READ LATEST STORIES Maria Sharapova of Russia celebrates after winning her women’s singles final match against Aryna Sabalenka of Belarus at the Tianjin Open tennis tournament in Tianjin on October 15, 2017. / AFP PHOTO / WANG ZhaoFive-time Grand Slam winner Maria Sharapova was made to fight by 102nd-ranked teenager Aryna Sabalenka at the Tianjin Open on Sunday before winning her first title since her 15-month doping ban.The former world number one, who returned to action in April, came from behind in both sets and needed four championship points in the tie-breaker before beating the 19-year-old 7-5, 7-6 (10/8).ADVERTISEMENT Frontrow holds fun run to raise funds for young cancer patients  She now heads to next week’s Kremlin Cup in Moscow for the first time since 2007, after also being given a wildcard to play in what is her home tournament. Sharapova’s coach Sven Groeneveld urged her to use the body serve, and momentum immediately shifted as she held the next game and then edged a nine-minute game seven to wrestle it back on serve.Sabalenka angrily slammed her racquet down as she double-faulted to be broken for a third time and with Sharapova serving at 6-5, the Belarusian overcooked a forehand to hand over the set.The second set followed a similar pattern and Sabalenka was 5-1 up before Sharapova reeled her in, breaking three times — and saving a set point along the way — before serving for the match at 6-5.But a double fault from the Russian took it to a closely contested tie-break, where Sharapova held championship points four times before finally sealing it after two hours and five minutes.Sharapova, whose ranking has dropped to 86, has been playing on wildcards this season. Her return has proved divisive, with some rivals insisting she shouldn’t be back on tour at all.ADVERTISEMENT Read Nextlast_img read more

Juventus’s winning habit proves impossible for Milan to break

first_imgMilan Whether Donnarumma will be around to make the next step with them is open to doubt. He looked to be on the verge of tears as Bonucci sought to console him at full-time. Buffon offered his namesake a kiss and a pat on the cheek that may have been a little harder than he intended.Then the older man jogged off to enjoy the moment with his team-mates. Corks were popped, champagne sprayed and Allegri thrown up in the air. As Buffon told it late last year: “I drink little, but I celebrate quite a bit.”For Juventus, winning is a habit. They ran through this entire Coppa Italia without conceding a goal. The only question now is whether they complete a fourth consecutive domestic double on Sunday at this same stadium, away to Roma, or leave that for the final weekend, when they host relegated Verona in Turin.The story is already written. All that remains is to see if Juventus can give it an end as fitting as the scoreline they produced on Wednesday night. Share on Twitter Topics Twitter Juventus have the title (nearly) won but the fight elsewhere is hotting up Share on Pinterest features Share on Messenger Share on Facebook European club football Facebook Pinterest Juventuscenter_img Share on WhatsApp Sportblog Share on LinkedIn Medhi Benatia puts Juventus ahead in the Coppa Italia final, a goal that opened the floodgates. Photograph: Angelo Carconi/EPA Juventus thrash Milan 4-0 to seal record 13th Coppa Italia victory It was only from late November that things really started to come together, Juventus conceding only a single goal in 16 games across all competitions. Giorgio Chiellini was injured at the start of that sequence. Benatia had served as cover for the famous BBC during much of his first season in Turin, but his cool reading of the game and capacity for playing the ball out from defence had now become indispensable.That is just another example of how this Juventus team have continued to evolve and adapt, the first-team squad subject to constant change over the four years of Allegri’s leadership, yet always capable of getting results when it matters. Milan, for all their vast expenditure last summer, remain a very long way behind.Defeat here means their spot in Europe next season is still not guaranteed. They sit sixth in Serie A, one point ahead of Atalanta and three ahead of Fiorentina – both of whom they face in the remaining two weeks. Even falling to seventh would be painful, obliging them to begin Europa League qualifying in July. Share via Email Or perhaps it would be more apt to speak of a game played in 20 minutes, not 90. That was all it took for this final to transform from a tense but uneventful affair into a lopsided rout. Milan had played with justifiable caution throughout the first half and succeeded in keeping things tight. As soon as they fell behind, they fell apart.Three of Juve’s four goals were gifted to them. Donnarumma allowed a Douglas Costa shot to slip through his fingers for the second, before dropping a ball at Mehdi Benatia’s feet for the third. The fourth was an own goal by Nikola Kalinic. Only the opener, headed in by Benatia from a corner, came without a Milan assist.This was a day of redemption for the Moroccan, after a month in which he became the scapegoat for a side that were in danger of throwing this season away. It was he who gave away the penalty that killed Juventus’s hopes of a sensational Champions League comeback in Madrid. Benatia then lost Kalidou Koulibaly for Napoli’s winner at the Allianz Stadium, a goal that briefly reignited the Serie A title race. He did not help himself with his remarks at the end of the Madrid defeat, likening the penalty award to a “rape” and subsequently engaging in a war of words with the comedian Maurizio Crozza – who called him out on his use of language (while unhelpfully extending the sexual metaphor in his own response). Massimiliano Allegri, perhaps sensing the player was distracted, dropped him against Bologna and Inter.The manager knows very well, though, how important Benatia has been. It would be easy to kid ourselves that Bonucci’s departure made no impact on a team that have continued to sweep all before them, but the reality is that there were times in the early part of this season when Juventus looked far less assured. They began the campaign by shipping three goals in a Supercoppa defeat to Lazio. Five separate opponents had put two or more past them by the end of October. Read more Read more A 4-0 victory to seal a fourth consecutive Coppa Italia. So absolute is Juventus’s domination of the domestic scene these days that they can apparently even afford themselves self-referential scorelines. No team had ever won so many consecutive editions of this tournament. Then again, that was already true last year.Milan were the opponents whose dreams they shattered this time at the Stadio Olimpico. Before kick-off you could take your pick of the storylines: from Leonardo Bonucci seeking to get one over on his former team to the duel-at-a-distance between a nation’s greatest goalkeeper, Gigi Buffon, and his heir apparent, Gianluigi Donnarumma. Over 90 minutes we were reminded there is only one winning narrative in Italian football these days, and it is written by the team in black and white. Reuse this contentlast_img read more

a month agoDeparting DC United star Rooney insists MLS players underpaid

first_imgTagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Departing DC United star Rooney insists MLS players underpaidby Paul Vegasa month agoSend to a friendShare the loveWayne Rooney says MLS players are underpaid.Currently with DC United, Rooney will leave the competition to return to England with Derby County in January.The league’s current bargaining agreement runs until January 31, 2020, and Rooney thinks players should demand more money.”I feel that American players get underpaid,” he told ESPN. “I feel they deserve to get more money to stay in line with football in the rest of the world but also in terms of the American sports.”I’m not saying it to benefit me, I obviously won’t be in the league next season. I think it’s only fair to those players who are putting in the same work as all have to earn the right to earn more money for doing it.”He added: “I think the flight issues, in terms of you get so many chartered flights, I believe if a team wants chartered flights than they should be able to charter as many they want. They should be able to do whatever they want with that.” last_img read more

Video: Indiana Signee Ogugua Anunoby Throws Down A Sick Between-The-Legs Dunk

first_imgIndiana Signee Ogugua Aunoby dunks after going between the legs.Indiana Signee Ogugua AunobyWith the returns of James Blackmon and Yogi Ferrell, as well as the addition of five-star big man Thomas Bryant, Indiana projects as a top-20 team next season. Bryant and four-star Juwan Morgan are the big names of the Hoosiers’ incoming freshman class, but a third frontcourt player, Ogugua Anunoby, has some talent of his own. Anunoby, a 6-foot-8 three-star small forward from Jefferson City (Mo.), posted this video to his Instagram tonight. It was re-posted by the Indiana men’s basketball program’s official Instagram, and it features Anunoby throwing down an impressive, 180-degree between-the-legs dunk. Pretty good. We’re sure Hoosier fans will be salivating once they see this.last_img read more

JUST FOR LAUGHS GILBERT ROZONS SEX CRIME HEARING DRAWS PROTESTERS BUT ACCUSED

first_img LEAVE A REPLY Cancel replyLog in to leave a comment Advertisement Login/Register With: Rozon, 64, was charged in December with rape and indecent assault. The allegations come from a single female complainant and date back to 1979.Rozon is also facing a $10-million class-action lawsuit alleging that he abused at least 20 women between 1982 and 2016. Last August, the Quebec Court of Appeal allowed Rozon to appeal the decision authorizing the lawsuit. The appeal has not yet been heard.Rozon, who denies any wrongdoing, stepped down as president of Just For Laughs last year, and an investor group bought the company in the spring.THE CANADIAN PRESS Demonstrators mark International Women’s Day in front of the courthouse to protest against Just for Laughs founder Gilbert Rozon, who is charged with sex related crimes, Friday, March 8, 2019 in Montreal. (THE CANADIAN PRESS/Ryan Remiorz) MONTREAL – Protesters gathered outside the Montreal courthouse today for a scheduled appearance by Gilbert Rozon on sex crime charges, but the Just for Laughs founder never showed, choosing to be represented by his lawyer.A judge granted a request by Rozon’s lawyer Pierre Poupart that the case be put off until April 25.With the court date coinciding with International Women’s Day, a few dozen people protested outside. Dominique Daigneault, a union president, said the protest was a reminder that full equality of the sexes has not been reached and that women are still victims of violence.center_img Facebook Advertisement Advertisement Twitterlast_img read more

Shahrukh meets CM at Nabanna

first_imgKolkata: Ahead of the their second IPL match at Eden Gardens, Kolkata Knight Riders co-owner Shahrukh Khan met Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee at state secretariat Nabanna on Tuesday. Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee expressed her confidence that Shahrukh’s team will win this year, while SRK sported the victory sign while leaving Nabanna in the evening. SRK said “We will all win this year” and hugged Banerjee, who exulted saying “Brother and sister always winners.” Also Read – Bengal family worships Muslim girl as Goddess Durga in Kumari PujaKKR, who had won their first match against Sunrisers Hyderabad at their home ground Eden Gardens, is set to play their second match, again at home, against Kings XI Punjab on Wednesday. KKR has won the IPL twice and Banerjee was a part of the celebrations during both. Khan has been attending the Kolkata International Film Festival on more than one occasion in the last few years and is also the brand ambassador of Bengal.last_img read more